Malaysia migrant mass graves: police reveal 139 sites, some with multiple corpses
Dozens of suspected people-smuggling camps also discovered in north of the country on border with Thailand
Khalid Abu Bakar, Malaysia’s inspector general of police, gives details of the discovery of 139 mass graves
Beh Lih Yi and agencies in Wang Kelian
Monday 25 May 2015 12.08 BST Last modified on Monday 25 May 2015 12.21 BST
Malaysian police say they have uncovered 28 suspected human trafficking camps located around 500 metres from the country’s northern border, a day after authorities reported the discovery of multiple mass graves.
“We discovered 139 of what we believe are graves,” national police chief Gen Khalid Abu Bakar told reporters.
“It’s a very sad scene … To us even one is serious,” he added. “We are working closely with our counterparts in Thailand. We will find the people who did this.”
He could not immediately give a figure of how many bodies might have been buried in the sites but the confirmation that there are 139 sites means the number of dead will be much higher than the 100 first suspected.
The dense jungles of southern Thailand and northern Malaysia have been a major route for smugglers bringing people to south-east Asia by boat from Burma – most of them Rohingya Muslims who say they are fleeing persecution – and Bangladesh.
Khalid added that one grave site was about 100 metres from a mass grave discovered in Thailand earlier this month.
The findings appeared to indicate a system of jungle camps and graves that dwarfs those found by Thai police in early May, a discovery that ignited regional concern about people smuggling and trafficking.
The discovery also follows repeated denials by top Malaysian officials – who have long been accused by rights groups of not doing enough to address the illicit trade –that such sites existed on their soil.
Khalid said the biggest camp that had been discovered in Malaysia could house around 300 people, while another one could take in around 100 people, showing the scale of the human traffickers’ operation in the area and highlighting fears that a high number of bodies will be unearthed.
“The forensic team has gone in and we will carry out the investigation,” Khalid told reporters in Wang Kelian, a Malaysian town where most of the grave sites were found.
“We will find out who caused this definitely. We will not condone anybody who is involved including Malaysian officials,” he said.
Khalid declined to say whether the victims are Rohingya or Bangladeshi, saying police have to wait until they exhume and identify the bodies.
Khalid also said they found at least one highly decomposed body left with just skin and bone. Police believed two to three of the camps were only abandoned as recently as two weeks ago because they found rice, vegetables, recently cooked meals and cooking utensils.
Photos taken by police provide a glimpse of the migrants’ ordeal in the camps. They were held in enclosures made of crude wooden fencing and covered with a tarpaulin.
A police photo of an enclosure where migrants were held. Photograph: Malaysia police
Another enclosure for migrants. Photograph: Malaysia police
Also photographed were medicines wrapped in plastic bags, white clothes traditionally used to wrap bodies in Muslim burial rites, and a box used to store bullets marked Thai Arms Co Ltd.
A storage box for bullets. Photograph: Malaysia Police/Handout
The camps had areas for Muslim prayer rooms, cooking, and showering, plus guard posts and what appears to be a designated zone for sepak takraw, a kick volleyball game popular in Malaysia and Thailand.
Questioned on why there was no action taken earlier, Khalid said police have been building up intelligence based on 37 arrests of suspected human traffickers – including two policemen – since the start of the year, which led to the grim discovery.
No arrests have been made in connection to the discovery of the 139 grave sites.
Malaysian prime minister Najib Razak said on Monday he was “deeply concerned” by the discovery in the jungle. “We will find those responsible,” Najib said in comments on his Facebook page.
Earlier in the month he declared “Malaysia does not and will not tolerate any form of human trafficking.”
But the revelation is likely to focus new attention on Malaysia’s record in battling a scourge that activists say is carried out by criminal syndicates, likely with the complicity of authorities.
The United Nations refugee agency UNHCR estimated on Friday that 3,500 migrants were still stranded on overloaded vessels with dwindling supplies, and repeated its appeal for the region’s governments to rescue them.
Malaysia and Indonesia have said they will allow the thousands still at sea to come ashore temporarily and ordered their navies to rescue people found adrift.
Thailand has said it will not allow migrant boats to land, but the prime minister, Prayuth Chan-ocha, said on Monday the Thai navy would help those in medical need. “I have ordered the navy to take our boats and set up a floating command centre to help those who are hurt,” he said.
Mass graves of suspected trafficking victims found in Malaysia
Graves could contain remains of dozens of Bangladeshi and Burmese Rohingya migrants
Malaysian anti-smuggling officers check on vehicles at the Malaysia-Thailand border. Police have said that they have discovered mass graves in more than a dozen abandoned camps. Photograph: Joshua Paul/AP
Simon Lewis in Rangoon and agencies in Kuala Lumpur
Sunday 24 May 2015 17.54 BST Last modified on Monday 25 May 2015 00.00 BST
Multiple mass graves and suspected human trafficking camps have been discovered along Malaysia’s border with Thailand, authorities have said.
It is feared that the graves could contain the remains of dozens of Bangladeshi and Burmese Rohingya migrants at the centre of a human trafficking crisis.
South-east Asian governments have been scrambling to deal with the thousands of migrants left adrift by smugglers in the Bay of Bengal and the Andaman Sea in recent weeks. More than 3,000 migrants have swum ashore or been rescued off Malaysia and Indonesia this month.
Malaysian newspaper reports said about 100 bodies had been discovered at camps in the far north of the country used by gangs to hold refugees and migrants against their will.
The home minister, Ahmad Zahid Hamidi, said investigators were unsure how many bodies had been found. “I reckon it was a preliminary finding and eventually I think the number would be more than ,” he told reporters. Other reports said hundreds of bodies were being unearthed by investigators at more than 17 separate camps. “They have been there for quite some time. I suspect the camps have been operating for at least five years,” Hamidi said, adding that he suspected Malaysian citizens were involved in the trafficking networks. He said more details would be made available at a press conference on Monday.
The graves are said to be located in the northern state of Perlis, bordering Thailand’s Songkhla province, where weeks ago two Thai teenagers stumbled upon a mass grave at a former traffickers’ camp that once held as many as 800 people. Thai police uncovered 26 bodies at the site, and subsequently cracked down on trafficking networks, which lead traffickers to abandon vessels overloaded with thousands of migrants just as the monsoon season had begun.
Despite initially refusing to take the boats in, Malaysia and Indonesia have now said they will temporarily accommodate migrants who make their way ashore. Indonesia said on Sunday that four naval ships and a patrol aircraft had begun search and rescue operations at sea, according to AFP. The United Nations and the US have called for action to address the “push factors” behind the crisis – namely Burma’s treatment of the Rohingya Muslim minority. Rohingya are denied citizenship in Burma, which calls them illegal immigrants from Bangladesh, which also rejects them.
About 140,000 people, mostly Rohingya, were displaced during riots in Burma’s Rakhine state beginning in mid-2012. Restricted aid access and discriminatory policies against the group have since led to large-scale maritime migration toward the relative prosperity of Malaysia. Until recently human traffickers in multiple countries were smuggling Rohingya, as well as poor Bangladeshis, in a process apparently refined to extort the maximum profit. During the dry season from October to May, boatmen in Rakhine state would take Rohingya out to large vessels waiting at sea, according to local accounts. When a boat’s hull was packed with human cargo, it would depart southward to Thailand or Malaysia.
A Rohingya migrant watches as Indonesian officials visit a temporary shelter in Aceh Timur in Indonesia’s Aceh province. Photograph: Darren Whiteside/Reuters
On arrival, migrants were handed to other traffickers operating makeshift prison camps in the jungle, where they were subjected to brutal treatment until their families back home paid a ransom, usually 6,000 Malaysian Ringgits (£1,070), according to families of trafficked people. Those whose families could not pay may be among those now turning up in shallow graves. Despite the recent flurry of government action – Burma has also announced search-and-rescue efforts for boats floating off its coast – regional officials have been criticised for allowing trafficking networks to operate for years unchecked.
“These jungle camps, and the brutality inflicted on people held there, were hardly a secret on either side of the border. The only way these kinds of camps could operate was with the support of military, police and politicians who were either directly involved or were paid to look the other way,” said Phil Robertson, deputy director of Human Rights Watch’s Asia division.
“This was a buffet feast of corruption at which so many people had a seat at the table, but so far only the local, lower-ranking persons have been arrested, and the major patrons who were at the head of the table are still free. Leaders in both Malaysia and Thailand need to demonstrate the political will to act and hold accountable all those involved, regardless of rank or status, or this horrific trade may resurface once the media limelight moves somewhere else.”
The Bangladeshi prime minister, Sheikh Hasina, criticised the country’s Rohingya migrants on Sunday, accusing them of hurting its image. “There is sufficient work for them, still they are leaving the country in such disastrous ways,” Hasina told the state-run Bangladesh Sangbad Sangstha news agency – her first comments on the migrant crisis.
Calling the boat people “mentally sick” for fleeing in search of jobs, the premier said they could have better lives in Bangladesh. “They are tainting Bangladesh’s image in the international arena,” she added.
Hasina called on authorities to halt the flow of migrants and take action against human traffickers. “Along with brokers [of trafficking], punishment will have to be given to those who are moving out of the country illegally,” she was quoted as saying. You will have to conduct … campaigns so migrants do not give money to brokers for going abroad in illegal ways. They are falling into a trap,” she reportedly told senior labour and employment ministry officials.
Malaysia mass graves: villagers tell of migrants emerging from secret jungle camps
Residents on the border village of Wang Kelian fear the worst as they reveal stories of desperate migrants who stumbled into their midst
Malaysian police stand guard at the Malaysia-Thailand border in Wang Kelian. Photograph: Joshua Paul/AP
Beh Lih Yi in Wang Kelian
Tuesday 26 May 2015 08.18 BST Last modified on Tuesday 26 May 2015 13.50 BST
The residents of Wang Kelian sensed something was amiss when a number of people stumbled on to their streets, weak and injured, and began to beg for food and water.
“They would walk into my shop, with injuries covering their hands and feet. Some were just too weak to even speak properly,” said Lyza Ibrahim, who runs a food stall in the town on the northern Malaysian border with Thailand.
“One asked me, ‘[Is this] Malaysia?’ Then he pointed in the other direction, said ‘Thailand’ and shook his head to signal that he was not wanted there.”
Malaysian police exhume remains from suspected migrant grave – video en: http://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/may/26/malaysia-mass-graves-villagers-tell-of-desperate-migrants-emerging-from-jungle-camps?CMP=EMCNEWEML6619I2
Wang Kelian is an unassuming settlement but it has been thrust into the global spotlight this week after the discovery in nearby jungle of dozens of secret camps used by people smugglers and nearly 140 grave sites.
Police say some of those graves contain multiple bodies – raising the terrible prospect of hundreds of unexplained deaths. On Tuesday Malaysian authorities begun the grim task of exhumation.
Some of the campsites included wooden pens, some with barbed wire and guarded by sentry posts. In one pen police found several parts of a decomposed body.
An abandoned human trafficking camp. Graves were found nearby, close to the border with Thailand at Wang Kelian, Malaysia. Photograph: Royal Malaysian police/EPA
The camps appear to be part of a complex of bases stretching into Thailand on what had been a well-established route smuggling mostly Rohingya people from Burma and Bangladeshis.
But the trade has been in chaos since early May, when Thai authorities launched a crackdown after the discovery of mass graves on their side of the border.
Thousands of migrants headed for Thailand started landing elsewhere in south-east Asia. And as the smugglers fled their jungle hideouts, migrants were spotted in Wang Kelian.
Police have said they will investigate the cause of death of the migrants. Link to video
Ibrahim said she had seen several migrants, whom she believes to be Rohingya, and heard stories about many others, including that they would go to a nearby mosque to ask for help.
Others echoed her story. Another woman said she had spotted a Bangladeshi migrant wandering in the area and knocking on her neighbour’s door.
“It is very sad. We have been hearing these stories, but we can’t do much,” said the woman, who declined to give her name. “We could only offer food, clean clothes, but we have to call the police and they will be taken away by the police after that.”
Bags with human remains at Wang Kelian, Perlis, Malaysia. Photograph: Fazry Ismail/EPA
Malaysian officials have acknowledged the camps had been around for some time but defended themselves against criticism that no action was taken earlier. Authorities had previously vehemently denied there were any such sites in the country.
“We have been building up intelligence and information,” the national police chief, Khalid Abu Bakar, told reporters on Monday, vowing tough action against any Malaysians involved.
But anti-trafficking groups said the latest discovery came as little surprise and would cast an even harsher spotlight on Malaysia, which was listed as ‘tier three’ by the US State Department’s annual human-trafficking report, the worst ranking for countries which are failing to stop the trade.
“There were stories about these camps that went back nearly 10 years,” Matthew Friedman, the former chief of the UN inter-agency project on human trafficking, told the Guardian. He now heads the Mekong Club, which campaigns against slavery in Asia. “We passed the information on to the local authorities, but there was no follow-up.”
A report in 2009 by the US Senate committee on foreign relations found that “a few thousand” Burmese migrants had become victims of extortion and trafficking once they were deported across Malaysia’s border with Thailand.
In addition, it said there were questions about the “level of participation” of government officials in Malaysia and Thailand.
Villager Mahyuddin Ahmad said he has seen migrants in Wang Kelian for the past two years but more had been spotted in the past month – the largest group being about 10 people, including women and children.
The 55-year-old businessman, who said he had given food such as instant noodles and clothes to migrants, added: “It is a common sight here. We didn’t suspect anything because we thought they just come from Thailand.
“So we are really shocked to hear what the police revealed yesterday about the grave sites and jungle camps.”
Which is the safest city in the world?
Urban safety isn’t just about avoiding muggings. Sanitation, immigration and even air-traffic control all matter – often in ways you wouldn’t imagine
Takeshita-dori, Tokyo … pedestrianisation of streets is considered to be a driver of a city’s safety. Photograph: Alamy/Iain Masterton
Tuesday 26 May 2015 06.55 BST Last modified on Tuesday 26 May 2015 08.05 BST
It’s not a recent initiative, but as far as unusual – and effective – measures to improve road-traffic safety go, mime is still hard to beat. In the mid-90s, Bogotá’s then-mayor, Antanas Mockus, employed more than 400 mime artists to stand guard at pedestrian crossings, showing wordless displeasure to reckless pedestrians and drivers who violated traffic rules and put lives at risk.
The experiment was included on the list of 100 Promising Practices on Safer Cities, a collection of global initiatives commissioned last year by UN-Habitat – the branch of the United Nations which looks at how to make an increasingly urbanised world work best. In recent years, however, various initiatives introduced in Bogotá to make walking and cycling safer have slipped. Bogotá is by no means the world’s safest city. So where is?
In many cities, more visible crimes have fallen while terrorism and cyber crime are growing threats. Photograph: EPA/Andrew Gombert
The first thing to consider is that safety isn’t just about how likely you are to be a victim of violent crime. In many cities, more visible crimes have fallen: in New York in 1990, the homicide rate peaked with 2,245 murders; last year it saw a record low of 328. But new risks are emerging: terrorism is a serious concern for any major city, and cyber crime is a growing threat – as cities increasingly rely on technology and connectedness, everything from traffic lights to air-traffic control, even sewage systems, could be vulnerable to hackers.
The EIU looked at a wide range of factors when putting together the index. It examined digital security, and considered the number of cyber attacks and how they were tackled. It looked at the obvious area of personal safety, but also infrastructure security – sanitation, roads, and management of natural disasters. In the health security category, it looked at quality of healthcare (for instance, how many hospital beds and doctors there were per 1,000 people), but also at issues such as pollution. As the report puts it, “Living in a safe and healthy urban environment can make a real and measurable difference to city inhabitants.” In the index’s top 25 cities, average life expectancy is 81; in the bottom half, it is 75.
Tokyo scored highly across all categories. The report highlights its low crime rate, and how city planners improved quality of life by banning diesel cars to reduce pollution, and pedestrianising large parts of the centre.
Before you start packing your bags, however, the conclusions aren’t simple: Tokyo also happens to be considered the world’s riskiest city, in part because of the huge number of people who would be harmed in an inevitable future earthquake. Nor does the report actually say which city is safest for you. From an individual’s point of view, as opposed to the municipal officials responsible for the smooth running of a city, isn’t personal safety more important than the threat of cyber crime? In that case, maybe you should look at Singapore instead. And what if health security is your priority, but you’ll take your chances on the streets? Move to Zurich: first for health, 13th for personal safety.
In 2011 and 2013, Amsterdam was ranked safest for cyclists by urban planning consultancy the Copenhagenize Design Company. Photograph: David R Frazier Photolibrary/Alamy
Tokyo might be one of the safest cities but it also happens to be one of the riskiest
Other studies have revealed other issues that might be of personal importance. Amsterdam, for instance, is – perhaps unsurprisingly – a good place to be a on a bike. In 2011 and 2013, the Dutch city was ranked safest for cyclists by urban planning consultancy the Copenhagenize Design Company, using criteria such as bicycle facilities, drivers’ attitudes, and political will to promote cycling. The sheer proliferation of cyclists helps – cycling in the city, notes the report, is “about as mainstream as you can get” – as does cycling infrastructure and a 30kph speed limit.
There is no exhaustive ranking of the safest cities for women, but one survey last year looked specifically at how safe women were on public transport. Up to 500 women were polled in 15 of the world’s capitals, plus New York. They were asked about their experiences of being verbally harassed or assaulted by men, travelling at night, the likelihood that other passengers would come to their aid, and whether they trusted that officials would investigate reports of violence. Of the cities surveyed, New York came out best, with Bogota, Mexico City and Lima faring worst; London was ranked fourth safest.
London was ranked fourth safest for women using public transport. Photograph: Sarah Lee for the Guardian
But is it really possible, or even desirable, to rank cities according to their safety? “We are quite wary of doing that,” says Dr Michele Acuto, principal investigator for UCL’s City Leadership Initiative, which is working with the UN on how to improve urban safety. “Rankings pit cities against each other. If you say London is safer than Manchester, it’s a blunt generalisation. You can say London has a lower crime rate than Manchester – that would be correct – but making judgements on safety is perception-based.”
Earthquakes, hurricanes, cyclones and tsunamis: the world’s 10 riskiest cities
How do you make a city safer? Nobody wants to live in a police state. “You have to reduce crime, but it’s also things like improving safety of transport. If you make a city more sustainable, with more bike lanes, for instance, you can redesign it so that it’s also safer for pedestrians.” The wealth gap also has an important effect on a city’s safety: “There is no safer-city agenda that can proceed without a social-equality agenda,” says Acuto.
And if there’s one factor you might want to consider as a sign of how safe your city is likely to be in future, look to the immigration rate. Studies in the US have shown that, far from what the anti-immigration lobby would have us believe, a city with more immigrants has lower crime rates. A study by Robert J Sampson, professor of social sciences at Harvard University, found that first-generation immigrants were 45% less likely – and second-generation immigrants 22% less likely – to commit violence than third-generation Americans. As Sampson has summed it up: “If you want to be safe, move to an immigrant city.”
La Unidad Académica de Estudios del Desarrollo de la Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas (UAED-UAZ) informa sobre la reciente publicación de la revista Migración y Desarrollo, vol. 12, núm. 23.
En este número prestigiados especialistas de centros de investigación nacionales e internacionales analizan temas relevantes sobre el nexo entre migración y desarrollo:
- Ronaldo Munck, de Dublin City University, Irlanda, el papel de los sindicatos frente a las migraciones internacionales en enmarcadas en la globalización.
- Martha García y Frédéric Décosse, de El Colegio de la Frontera Sur, México, y la Escuela de Altos Estudios en Ciencias Sociales, Francia, respectivamente, abordan la problemática de los jornaleros centroamericanos en México y marroquíes en Francia.
- Rodolfo García Zamora y Patricia Gainza, de la Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas, México, y del Ministerio de Desarrollo Social, Uruguay, comparan las políticas migratorias en los países de Sudamérica.
- Laura Velasco de El Colegio de la Frontera Norte, México, examina la organización y liderazgo de migrantes indígenas del FIOB en México y Estados Unidos.
- María Fernanda Moscoso de la Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales, Ecuador, describe los usos idiomáticos de niños y padres inmigrantes ecuatorianos en Alemania.
- Karlos Castilla de la Universitat Pompeu Fabra, España, analiza los rasgos de inconstitucionalidad de la Ley de Migración en México.
- Finalmente, se publica la Declaración de Zacatecas del IV Seminario de Pastoral Migratoria: Seguridad Humana y Migración ¿Dónde está tu Hermano?
La revista estará disponible para consulta o descarga en los portales de la Unidad Académica de Estudios del Desarrollo (http://www.estudiosdeldesarrollo.net) y la Red Internacional de Migración y Desarrollo (http://rimd.reduaz.mx y http://www.migracionydesarrollo.org/).
Asimismo, los contenidos serán difundidos en diversas redes sociales:
Adicionalmente, se puede leer bajo el sistema
La versión impresa estará disponible próximamente en las instalaciones de la UAED-UAZ.
Reciban un cordial saludo.
Adolfo A. Laborde Carranco
Hoy más que nunca es necesario desmitificar la realidad de los migrantes y sus líderes. Más aún cuando se debate en los medios de comunicación la desafortunada grabación del Dr. Lorenzo Córdoba, Presidente Consejero del Instituto Nacional Electoral (INE), México.
Art work by José Santos:http://www.jsantos.co.uk/
Desde hace algunos años que he vivido de cerca el fenómeno migratorio en una doble vertiente, como estudioso del tema (académico) y migrante, he tenido la oportunidad de estar en los dos frentes, con los que se quedaron y con los que se fueron. Los primeros regularmente replican los prototipos del migrante clásico: se fue porque en México no tenía nada, pero triunfó en el otro lado. No necesariamente es así. Hay una gran cantidad de combinaciones y factores que determinan las razones para migrar. Como regularmente se piensa, no todos los que se van triunfan y lo hacen por razones económicas. Cada historia representa una realidad muy particular y diferente a la otra. Muchos huyen de la violencia, por integración familiar y hasta por un factor determinante que me gustaría denominar “la cultura de la migración” que no es otra cosa que una tradición histórica que se debe de seguir y que se ha seguido en sus comunidades de origen.
Los que se fueron, sin embargo, mantienen una estrecha relación con México. Lo hacen a través de los noticiarios hispanos, la música, la comida, tradiciones, formas, conductas y mediante sus organizaciones comunitarias denominadas Clubes y Federaciones que mucho han aportado en términos de cooperación en sus distintas expresiones en sus comunidades de origen, un ejemplo de ello es el programa 3×1 que consiste en que por cada dólar aportado por los migrantes, el Gobierno Federal, Estatal y el Municipal aportan 1 respectivamente. Asimismo, desde hace ya algunos años, han generado una importante presencia (lobby) en México en donde las organizaciones migrantes binacionales han hecho un excelente trabajo.
Sus representantes, es decir, sus líderes (comunitarios o no) han sido los que han empujado y puesto sobre la mesa de negociación en México temas sensibles para los de acá, pero importantes para los de allá. Hablo del voto en el extranjero, exigencia de representación política en las cámaras (diputado migrante), activismo sobre asuntos de política migratoria, entre otros muchos temas. Afortunadamente, ya sea por mi cachucha como académico o migrante, he sido actor-observador de los procesos contemporáneos. Gracias a ello, constato que lo acontecido recientemente con el Presidente Consejero, es una práctica habitual entre algunos, no todos claro, funcionarios mexicanos que desconocen quién es realmente el interlocutor migrante y sobre todo qué historia traer en la espalda.
Con la intención de desmitificar y abordar en su justa dimensión a estos líderes migrantes poco estudiados, me di a la tarea de crear el Atlas de líderes migrantes mexicanos en los Estados Unidos, los casos de Chicago, Los Ángeles y Nueva York. Los resultados del análisis del trabajo que se realizó de septiembre de 2014 a mayo de 2015 arrojó datos realmente sorprendentes de estos actores políticos que se desconocían. Por ejemplo, la investigación halló que más del 77% de los líderes de las tres ciudades tienen educación profesional; más del 72% de ellos realizan su trabajo sin percibir suelo, es decir, su trabajo es pro-bono; más del 60% no cuentan con filiación política ni en México ni en Estados Unidos; más del 80% no tiene aspiraciones políticas en ambos lados de la frontera; más del 60% cuentan con la doble nacionalidad; 98% están dispuestos a capacitarse; los Estados de Oaxaca y Puebla aportan el mayor número de líderes migrantes de acuerdo a los 36 líderes entrevistados (12 en cada ciudad).
La investigación a la que el Diario la Opinión de los Ángeles, ya ha hecho referencia, también encontró algunos otros datos importantes como por ejemplo: la mayoría de los líderes se encuentran entre los 50 y 60 años, lo que habla de la urgencia de la renovación de cuadros, o bien, más del 70% de los líderes son hombres, lo que habla de la necesidad de incorporar a más mujeres en sus filas. Con estos datos y otros que el Atlas muestra, las autoridades mexicanas, o bien, aquellas que tienen una relación constante con nuestra diáspora y sus líderes en Estados Unidos podrán tener una idea más acabada de sus contrapartes y evitar caer en los vicios y prejuicios sobre la comunidad mexicana transfronteriza y, por supuesto, acabar o manchar su carrera política-burocrática en caso de que sean sujetos a las prácticas de espionaje que tuvo recientemente el propio Dr. Lorenzo Córdoba.
El Diario La Opinión de Los Ángeles [Estados Unidos]: http://www.laopinion.com/40-de-los-lideres-mexicanos-migrantes-tienen-nivel-primaria Fecha de consulta: 23 de mayo de 2015.